Lisp expressions, also known as symbolic expressions (S-expressions), are prefixed expressions. In Lisp, the
(quote) function or
' can easily parse symbolic expressions into internal list data structures, whereas in other languages, it would take some effort to do a similar conversion.
> '(list 1 2 3) (list 1 2 3) > '(defun factorial (x) (if (zerop x) 1 (* x (factorial (- x 1))))) (defun factorial (x) (if (zerop x) 1 (* x (factorial (- x 1)))))
I recently spent a few days looking through the parsing-related topics in the Dragon Book and the Tiger Book, and deepened my understanding of some common terms (context-free grammar, recursive descent parsing, LL(1)), and so on. This is recorded here for future reference.
Finally, a parser was implemented using Python, with the following result,
>>> parse('(list 1 2 3)') ['list', 1, 2, 3] >>> parse('''(defun factorial (x) (if (zerop x) 1 (* x (factorial (- x 1)))))''') ['defun', 'factorial', ['x'], ['if', ['zerop', 'x'], 1, ['*', 'x', ['factorial', ['-', 'x', 1]]]]]
First, it is necessary to define context-free grammar, also called grammar. The Lisp expression syntax to be implemented is described as follows.
expr -> "(" operator operands ")" operator -> "string"|expr operands -> operand* operand -> "int"|"float"|"string"|expr
This syntax contains 4 production rules1, where the one in double quotes is the terminal symbol, the one to the left of
-> is the nonterminal symbol, and
-> is read as “can have the form:”.
An expression has the form: wrapped in parentheses, containing an
operator and zero or more
operator has the form: a string or another expression; an
operand has the form: an integer, a floating point number, a string, or another expression.
These 4 rules form a tree structure, with the root node being the start symbol
expr, the leaf nodes corresponding to terminals, and the non-leaf nodes corresponding to nonterminals.
With the syntax defined, we can have sentences such as
(string int int int), or
(defun factorial (x)), and so on. For a sentence, we can perform derivation to derive a parse tree.
The derivation of the first sentence is as follows,
expr (operator operands) (string operands) (string int operand*) (string int int operand*) (string int int int)
The derivation of the second sentence is as follows,
expr (defun operands) (defun operands) (defun factorial operands) (defun factorial expr) (defun factorial (operator operands)) (defun factorial (x operands)) (defun factorial (x))
Both examples are leftmost derivations, i.e., each derivation replaces the leftmost nonterminal.
A grammar is ambiguous if we can find a sentence in it that can derive multiple parse trees. Ambiguous grammars need to be redesigned into non-ambiguous grammars in order to be processed correctly by the program.
Our Lisp expression syntax in this case is unambiguous.
Predictive parsing is a special example of recursive descent parsing, which is top-down parsing. Recursive descent is a relatively simple and intuitive algorithm, where each nonterminal (
expr, operator, operands, operand) in the syntax corresponds to a function.
def expr(): tokens.pop(0) # remove ( operator() operands() tokens.pop(0) # remove ) def operator(): if tokens == "(": expr() else: tokens.pop(0) # string def operands(): while tokens != ")": operand() def operand(): if tokens == "(": expr() else: tokens.pop(0) # int, float, string
The function in the above implementation only needs to check the first element of
tokens to select the correct syntax rule, such syntax belongs to the LL(1) category, other categories are LL(2), LL(3)…. …LL(k).
Predictive parsing is the process of “predicting” which rule will be used by the first k elements in
The final full implementation can be found in this Gist. To keep the code as simple as possible, lexical parsing uses
replace, split instead of the standard regular parsing.
The term “production” was introduced by Noam Chomsky in the mid-1950s, as part of his work on generative grammar. According to Chomsky, a generative grammar is a system of rules that can generate or produce all the possible sentences of a language. The term “production” was chosen to reflect the idea that the grammar rules are like factories that produce or generate sentences by combining simpler elements into more complex structures. Just as a factory produces goods by assembling raw materials, a grammar produces sentences by assembling words and phrases according to the rules of the language. ↩